# Finance ## Expected Return of a Portfolio: Formula, Calculator, Example

If you are investing in different assets and asset classes, you might wonder which return on your total investment to expect. It is a good practice to spread savings across different types of investments, such as stocks, bonds, real estate, commodities, gold or liquidity. However, the more investments you do, the harder is the prediction … ## Convert Annual Interest Rates into Monthly, Quarterly & Daily Rates

Whether you are comparing loan or deposit offers, performing a financial analysis or wish to determine your monthly or quarterly returns, you will need to convert annual interest rates into monthly, quarterly or even daily interest rates. Use our calculator or the formulas introduced in this article to determine the type of rate that you … ## Perpetuity Calculator: Present Value of Infinite Annuity + Growth Rate

A perpetuity is an infinite annuity, i.e. a never-ending series of payments. These cash flows can be even or subject to an even growth rate (source). You can use the present value of a perpetuity to determine the value of an endless series of cash flows, e.g. if you are evaluating assets such as real … ## Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) Calculator (Assessment of Investment Alternatives)

The Benefit Cost Ratio is an indicator that helps you compare different investment alternatives based on the discounted value of all costs and benefits of the respective investment. It is typically used in a cost-benefit analysis and capital budgeting (source). The BCR provides an indication of whether and to which extent the present value of … ## Payback Period (PBP) Calculator (Regular & Varying Cash Flows)

The Payback period is an indicator of the repayment characteristics of an investment. It basically answers the question of how long it takes for the investment to amortize. If the PBP is 4, for example, this means that the initial investment is recovered in the 4th period. The standard PBP does not consider any discount … ## Net Present Value (NPV) Calculator (for Fixed and Variable Discount Rates)

Net present value is one of the most common indicators and evaluation techniques for investments. It is used to assess investments in or determine the fair value of financial instruments. In companies, NPV is a popular way of comparing and evaluating different investment alternatives, e.g. comparing and selecting a machine or a project. This calculator …